Concept & Approach
The proposed architecture has been designed to serve two over-arching goals namely – openness and interoperability. Openness involves the definition of component interfaces in such a way that allows the easy integration of open platforms such as UniversAAL and the utilization of a plethora of services and applications targeting obesity and eating behaviour. Furthermore, the open approach of the OCARIoT project is aiming to create a highly adaptable and customizable interface with IoT devices helping in this way the utilization of the project outcomes in different smart living (home, school, outdoor) environments with minimal requirements regarding the devices and sensors. Interoperability of OCARIoT on the other hand focused on the possibility of the system to be seamlessly used through a wide spectrum of devices creating in this way an environment for the presentation of the project’s personalised coaching system. Finally, interoperability covers the possibility of the system to be integrated in future solutions targeting specific issues and difficulties in the life of users and form a unified user experience for the support of their health. The conceptual approach of OCARIoT, where the different entities that take part of the platform are envisaged is:
Concept and approach of OCARIoT
- Data interoperability and pre-processing: OCARIoT will propose an open monitoring platform based on universAAL that allows the compilation of information from heterogeneous IoT sources and enrich it with semantic information, so that it will facilitate the computing of information by the intelligent algorithms. Awareness of the situation and reliable information is crucial for decision making and implementation of precise algorithms. In summary, the compiled information will come from different sources:
- Physiological and behavioural monitoring: It is an information source, mainly comprised of the wearables and medical devices used directly by the children, that will be used as input for assess the user’s health, and behaviour status.
- Context monitoring: It comprises the IoT infrastructure to monitor the environment. It includes the sensorized everyday objects (such as box, pill dispenser, lamp or static bike) available.
- Health information: Health related information is crucial to interpret user status and optimize the coaching. OCARIoT involves healthcare professionals and will connect, when possible, to healthcare organisations in order to retrieve such medical information, while satisfying security and privacy.
- Open Data: It refers to available open data that OCARIoT will integrate, mainly for outdoor scenarios and related to aspects like mobility, weather or social/entertainment events, for example.
The monitoring of this information will be based on standard and open specification: (i) Standards, vocabulary and specification that help to interpret medical information as SNOMED-CT, NANDA-NOC-NIC, EN 13606 or HL7 CDA. (ii) Standard ontologies notations (like OWL2 from W3C) to semantically enriched that monitored information in order to facilitate the post-processing by the intelligent algorithms.
- Personalised obesity coaching based on smart algorithms: Based on the different data pre-processed, the DSS module will provide the personalised obesity coaching plan to children. This DSS will reuse two components from universAAL IoT (“Content History Entrepot” and “Situation Reasoner”), and adapt to project needs. o OCARIoT app and dashboard: Although the modular approach will allow developing new functionalities and features for the OCARIoT app and dashboard within the project, for validation purpose we will instantiate and implement the following ones based on the pilot scenarios described in section 1.3.3:
- Physical exercising activities through interactive games.
- Nutritional tracking and counselling, focused on the assessment of the user’s overall nutritional status followed by the assignment of individualized food tips (including specific dietary adjustments based on the user’s health status, e.g. diabetes). The platform will track daily the nutritional needs and status of the user (e.g., asking the child to provide info about the food or automatically using specific devices like the molecular sensor called SCiO). If needed, the intervention of a healthcare staff will be enabled to provide or adjust the nutritional plan.
- Follow-up of the children’s obesity, health status and evolution (vital signs check-up) in order to detect problematic and risky situations for providing personalized instructions and reminders to address such circumstances (e.g. high blood pressure, falls, anomalous vital sign, etc.).
- Participation in social and collective activities to keep higher motivation of children and improve social inclusion. Children could join to other users in training sessions.
- Easy interactions and contact with families and healthcare personnel.
OCARIoT will apply a gamification strategy to motivate and encourage children in order to commit to followup the personalised obesity coaching. The foundations of this system are a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators (based on the user´s profile) such as: immediate feedback, progress evolution and personalised notifications so users engage as the core part of the coaching process.
OCARIoT Value Proposition Canvas